Eye Diseases

Below is a list of some of the common eye symptoms and associated eye disorders. Noting the kind of symptoms you experience is important to help you and your eye doctor find out if there’s a problem. An eye examination can determine what is wrong and how to fix it.



The most basic eye examination is the testing of visual acuity using Snellen’s Chart.


Slit-lamp bio microscope is the stethoscope of an eye doctor.

It gives a stereoscopic magnified view of the eye structures in detail.

It is a combination of corneal microscope and the slit or beam-like lamp.

The concept of its idea is credited to Alvar Gullstrand


Blurry or hazy vision

Long-term hazy vision with no pain can be due to:

REFRACTIVE ERRORS like short-sightedness (MYOPIA), long-sightedness (HYPEROPIA), ASTIGMATISM or PRESBYOPIA. These can be readily solved with vision correction aids such as spectacles, contact lenses and LASIK.

A more serious cause of blurred vision is AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION (ARMD), which often affects the central vision. Objects in the middle of the field of view are seen as distorted, but the peripheral vision remains clear. This condition is irreversible and can cause blindness if left untreated, so early diagnosis is important.

Do you have cloudy vision?

Cloudy vision is as if you are seeing objects through a mist. It can be a due to CATARACT. This condition,  is age-related and is progressive. It lead to blindness if left untreated.  The blindness is reversible though. Cataracts can be easily removed surgically.

Cloudy vision can also be caused by other medical conditions such as vitamin A deficiency, sexually transmitted disease and eye tumours. If you are suffering from cloudy vision, do see your eye doctor for early diagnosis and treatment.

Normal Vision                  Cloudy Vision

Loss of peripheral vision

If your central vision is fine, but the areas outside your central field of vision start to lose clarity or detail, you could be losing your peripheral vision. Peripheral vision is responsible for detecting motion at the edges of our field of view and sensing incoming danger. Any impairment of your peripheral vision can be quite dangerous.

One cause of loss of peripheral vision is GLAUCOMA, where the eye pressure is usually abnormal. Glaucoma and filed loss are often NOT detected by patients. The patients have NO symptoms. Most cases of glaucoma are accidentally detected by eye doctors.


Glaucomatous Cupping
Loss of peripheral visual field


Are your eyes itchy or watery?

Itchiness and watering of the eyes are signs of allergy to pollen, pet hair, or other foreign substances in your environment. This is called ALLERGIC CONJUNCTIVITIS. The condition causes irritation, but does not usually result in significant vision loss. DRY EYES, paradoxically, can also cause watering and irritation.

Do you see floaters in your field of vision?

These dark, flying spots are seen against light background like white wall or blue sky. They tend to run away if you look at them. Floaters occur when small clumps of the vitreous (a jelly-like fluid) inside the eye detach from the inner wall of the eye. Seeing floaters can be an indication of POSTERIOR VITREOUS DETACHMENT (PVD), or a more serious problem like DIABETIC RETINOPATHY which causes blood vessels in the retina to weaken and burst. The  blood that fills the vitreous cavity is seens as floaters. Floaters can also be caused by RETINAL DETACHMENT (RD), a very serious condition. Here, the retina of the eye detaches from the rest of the layers of the eye. If you see floaters, see your eye doctor for early diagnosis and treatment.

Are you seeing flashes?

Flashes appear as arcs of light across the field of vision, or sometimes as flashes of light. Like floaters, flashes are are commonly associated with PVD and, more seriously, with RD. If you see flashes, urgently see your eye doctor for retina examination.

Other Vision Problems and Symptoms

Pain and Redness 

Eye pain can be due to scratches on the cornea, corneal infections (KERATITIS) or CORNEAL ULCERS. UVEITIS and ACUTE CONGESTIVE GLAUCOMA, a dangerous form of glaucoma, can also cause severe pain and redness. If you suffer from excessive crusting of the eyelid, it could be due to allergies or eye infections such as pink eye (CONJUCTIVITIS or BLEPHARITIS).


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